SOUPS AND BROTHS. 45
, knuckles of veal, any poultry trimmings, 4 slices of lean ham, three carrots, 3 onions, 1 head of celery, 12 pepper corns, 2 02. of salt, 1 blade of mace, 1 bunch of herbs, 1 oz. of butter, 4 quarts of water. Cut the veal up and put it with the bones and trimmings of the poultry and the ham into the stew pan, which has been rubbed with the butter. Moisten with 1-2 pint of water and simmer till the gravy ^ begins to flow, then add the 4 quarts of water and the remainder of the ingredients. Simmer for 5 hours. After skimming and straining it carefully through a very fine hair sieve it will be ready for use. Boil 5 1-2 hours.
N. B. When stronger stock is desired double the quantity of veal, or put an old fowl in. The liquor in which a young turkey, goose or any other fowl has been boiled is an excellent addition to all white stock or soup.
Rich Strong Stock.—Four lbs. of shin of beef, 4 lbs, of knuckle of veal, 1-2 lb. of good lean ham, any poultry trimmings, 2 ounces of butter, 3 onions, 3 carrots, 3 turnips, (if the weather is hot the turnips should be omitted lest they ferment), 1 head of celery, a few chopped mushrooms when obtainable, 1 tomato, 1 bunch of savory herbs, not forgetting the parsley, 1 1-2 ounce of salt, 3 lumps of sugar, i2 white pepper corns, 6 cloves, 3 small pieces of mace, four quarts of water. Line a delicately clean stew pan with the ham cut in thin, broad slices, carefully trimming off all its rusty fat, cut up the beef and veal in pieces about 3 inches square and lay them on the ham, set it on the stove and draw it down and stir frequently; when the meat is equally browned put in the beef and veal bones, the poultry trimmings and pour in the cold water. Skim well and occasionally add a little cold water to stop its boiling until it becomes quite clear, then put in all the other ingredients and simmer very slowly for 5 hours; do not let it come to a brisk boil, that the stock be not wasted, that the color may be preserved. Strain through a very fine hair sieve or cloth, and the stock will be fit for use. Boil 5 hours.
Browning for Stock.—Two oz. powdered sugar and 1-2 pint water. Place the sugar in a stewpan until it becomes black, then add the water and let it dissolve. Cook closely and use a few drops when required. N. B.—In France onions burnt are made use of for the purpose of browning. As a general rule the process of browning is to be discouraged, as it is apt to impart a slightly unpleasant flavor to the stock, and, consequently, to the soups made from it.
To Clarify Stock.—The whites of 2 eggs, 1-2 pint water, 2 quarts stock. Supposing that, by accident, the soup is not quite clear and that its quantity is 2 quarts, take the whites of 2 eggs, carefully Separated from the yolks, whisk them well together with the water and add gradually the 2 quarts of boiling stock, still skimming. Place