Christmas In Ritual & Tradition - online book

The Observance Of Christmas In Various Lands And Ages.

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ALL HALLOW TIDE TO MARTINMAS .             -             .             .187
All Saints' and All Souls' Days, their Relation to a New Year Festival—All Souls' Eve and Tendance of the Departed—Soul Cakes in England and on the Continent—Pagan Parallels of All Souls'—Hallowe'en Charms and Omens—Hallowe'en Fires—Guy Fawkes Day—"Old Hob," the Schimmelreiter, and other Anim>.' Masks—Martinmas and its Slaughter— Martinmas Drinking—St. Martin's Fires in Germany—Winter Visitors in the Low Countries and Germany—St. Martin as Gift-bringer— St. Martin's Rod.
St. Clement's Day Quests and Processions—St. Catherine's Day as Spinsters' Festival—St. Andrew's Eve Auguries—The Klopfelnachte— St. Nicholas's Day, the Saint as Gift-bringer, an*: his Attendants—Elec­tion of the Boy Bishop—St. Nicholas's Day at Bari—St. Lucia's Day in Sweden, Sicily, and Central Europe—St. Thomas's Day as School Festival—Its Uncanny Eve—" Going a-Thomassin'."
CHAPTER IX CHRISTMAS EVE AND THE TWELVE DAYS .             .             .227
Christkind, Santa Klaus, and Knecht Ruprecht—Talking Animals and other Wonders of Christmas Eve—Scandinavian Beliefs about Trolls and the Return of the Dead—Traditional Christmas Songs in Eastern Europe—The Twelve Days, their Christian Origin and Pagan Supersti­tions—The Raging Host—Hints of Supernatural Visitors in England— The German Frauen—The Greek Kallikantzaroi.
THE YULE LOG.......249
The Log as Centre of the Domestic Christmas—Customs of the Southern Slavs—The Pda-znik—Origin of the Yule Log—Probable Connection with Vegetation-cults or Ancestor-worship—The Souche de Noel in France—Ita'.ian and German Christmas Logs—English Customs—The YuL Canule in England and Scandinavia.
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