THE CHRISTMAS-TREE, DECORATIONS, AND GIFTS . . 261
The Christmas-tree a German Creation—Charm of the German Christ-
mas—Early Christmas-trees—The Christmas Pyramid—Spread of the Tree in Modern Germany and other Countries—Origin of the Christmas-tree—Beliefs about Flowering Trees at Christmas—Evergreens at the Kalends—Non-German Parallels to the Christmas-tree—Christmas Decorations connected with Ancient Kalends Customs—Sacredness of Holly and Mistletoe—Floors strewn with Straw—Christmas and New Year Gifts, their Connection with the Roman Strenae and St. Nicholas— Present-giving in Various Countries—Christmas Cards.
CHRISTMAS FEASTING AND SACRIFICIAL SURVIVALS . 281
Prominence of Eating in the English Christmas—The Boar's Head, the Goose, and other Christmas Fare—Frumenty, Sowens, Yule Cakes, and the Wassail Bowl—Continental Christmas Dishes, their Possible Origins— French and German Cakes—The Animals' Christmas Feast—Cakes in Eastern Europe—Relics of Animal Sacrifice—Hunting the Wren— Various Games of Sacrificial Origin.
MASKING, THE MUMMERS' PLAY, THE FEAST OF FOOLS,
AND THE BOY BISHOP.....295
English Court Masking—" The Lord of Misrule "—The Mummers' Play, the Sword-Dance, and the Morris Dance—Origin of St. George and other Characters—Mumming in Eastern Europe—The Feast of Fools, its History and Suppression—The Boy Bishop, his Functions and Sermons— Modern Survivals of the Boy Bishop.
ST. STEPHEN'S, ST. JOHN'S, AND HOLY INNOCENTS' DAYS 309
Horse Customs of St. Stephen's Day—The Swedish St. Stephen— St. John's Wine—Childermas and its Beatings.