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INTRODUCTION.
17
ratuSj and place them under the guidance of men distinguished alike for learning and genius. Here the sons of the rich or the favorites of the powerful were to be assembled and instructed. Thus, while the people at large were to be left in darkness, a blaze of glorious light was to be collected into one focal point.
Such was the scheme of these sovereigns who have claimed to be regarded as the benefactors of mankind. But if we look into their real motives, we shall observe that the seminaries which they established or encouraged were little more than engines, by which they designed to fortify the despotic power of the crown. The university was in fact a mere pillar of state, and designed, not for the diffusion of knowledge, but for the support of monarchy. It derived its existence from the crown; it received its reve­nues from the same source; the officers were appointed by the king or his ministers; and its whole internal administration was under their direct or indirect control. To the crown, then, it owed special allegiance, and in every emer­gency, the professors and pupils became its wil­ling champions.
Nor was this all; for while the government bestowed its munificent favors upon the univer­sity, education was actually discouraged among 2*                                        B
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