INTELLECTUAL CULTURE. 361
devoted to the discipline of the mind, to the establishing of good habits, rather than to the mere accumulation of knowledge. It is with learning as with money—if given freely, without teaching the means of its acquisition, it is apt to be lightly valued and lightly parted with, and poverty must then ensue, if the skill of obtaining more is not possessed.
Previous to the invention of printing, in 1441, books of every kind were scarce, and, being written with pens, were necessarily costly. A copy of the Bible was then worth as much as a sood house and farm are now. Kins: Alfred is said to have, given a very large estate for a single volume. in these times it is clear that the art of reading must have been confined to few persons. How great is the change that has taken place in four hundred years! Of the making of many books there is now no end, and the idea of instructing every member of the community, not only in the art of reading, but in the elements of geography, history and philosophy, is no longer a chimera. The printing of books upon type was a starthng invention, indeed, but strange combinations have taken place in our own day 31