Hoyle's Games, Improved And Enlarged - online book

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the dealer pays single stakes to all whose num­bers under 21 are higher than his own, and re­ceives from those who have lower numbers ; but nothing is paid or received by such players as have similar numbers to the dealer; and when the dealer draws more than 21, he is to pay to all who have not thrown up.
Twenty-one, made by an ace and a ten, or court card, whenever dealt in the first instance, is styled a Natural Vingt-un, should be declared im­mediately, and entitles the possessor to the deal, besides double stakes from all the players, unless there shall be more than one natural vingt-un, in which case the younger hand or hands so having the same are excused from paying to the eldest, who takes the deal, of course.
N.B. An ace may be reckoned either as 11 or 1 ; every court-card is counted as 10, and the rest of the pack according to their pips.
The odds of this game depend merely upon the average quantity of cards likely to come under or exceed 21 : for example, if those in hand make 14 exactly, it is 7 to 6 that the card next drawn will not make the number of points above 21, but if the points be 15, it is 7 to 6 against that hand ; yet it would not, therefore, always be prudent to stand at 15, for as the ace mav be calculated both ways, it is rather above an even bet that the ad­versary's two first cards amount to more than 14. A natural vingt-un may be expected once in seven deals when two, and twice in seven when four people play, and so on according to the number of players.
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