260 IDEAL HOME LIFE
the stem is nearly as thick as your thumb, if it is a coniferous tree. If no boughs are obtainable, grass or dried leaves will serve very well for a bed.
Fire Without Matches
The back of your knife struck sharply upon flint or quartz will throw a, spark. Either dried puff balls or fungus-decayed wood will make good material to catch the spark. This is the trickóto catch the sparkóbut a little experience will teach you how to do it.
Plenty of wood, good water, and good drainage are the things to be looked for in selecting a camping place.
Careful About Fires
In this connection it may not be amiss to enter a caution about fires. Choose a naked piece of earth, if possible, upon which to make the fire. Never make a fire upon dry leaves or dry grass. Clear away any surrounding inflammable ma≠terial to avoid danger of the fire spreading. Put out the very last spark before leaving it, even for a short time.
In case of rain, or in any case in fact, all articles that may be injured by wetting should be stowed in the tent. Usually if placed around the sides they will occupy little room and will not clutter the tent inconveniently. In case there is no tent a lean-to shelter, well thatched, will be found a good pro≠tection. In this case the things should be neatly piled upon poles or branches to raise them from the ground. The lean-to should have its ends protected and stand with its back to the storm.
Building the Latrine
For the latrine choose a spot far enough away to preclude odors reaching camp, and in a position whereby no possible drainage from it may contaminate the water supply.
Dig a pit about two and one-half feet wide and four or five feet long. At each end and slightly forward of the pit