HOME HANDICRAFT 363
original spool and on to the take-up spool. Then, and not until then—except in the trials at home with the spoiled film— remove the back of the camera, or open the door, or whatever it is you do on your particular camera to get to the spools, and take out the wound-up film. On the end of the protecting paper you will find a piece of gummed paper. Use this to stick the flap of the roll to itself, so it will not unwind, and put the whole away from the light, in a pocket or box.
You must not put your films in the camera in bright sunlight ; get in the shade; in a house is better. You must not let spools of film, exposed or fresh, lie around uncovered. Roll film is carefully made and well protected against ordinary handling, but it isn't fool-proof, and light has a way of leaking and seeping in and around where it is least expected. If you are careful in loading and unloading, if you take care and give the film a chance, there is no reason why you shouldn't make just as good pictures within the capabilities of your instrument as any one else with larger and finer machines.
The problem which confronts the novice in photography at the very beginning is that of, "What exposure shall I give ?" Among the factors on the proper combination of which correct exposure depends, may be mentioned the following: time of year, time of day, speed of film, speed of shutter, speed of lens (otherwise its "relative opening"), color of subject, distance of subject from the camera, kind and color of light, state of air—whether clear or murky, kind and number of clouds, and so on.
Before a lens can form an image of an object on the sensitive material (plate or film) it must be focused. In the fixed focus cameras, this is done by the manufacturer. In the scale focusing instruments, such as the folding pocket Kodaks of the larger sizes, it must be done by the operator, according to a scale. This focus, or distance from the lens to the plate, differs with different lenses, and with the same lense as the distance between camera and object is greater