bowel) or by inhalation. The stimulants administered are those ordinarily used. Strong coffee is of the greatest value in narcotic poisoning, and it may be given either by the mouth or by the rectum. When stimulants are given by the rectum, the amount should be considerably larger than when given by the mouth, and they should be diluted with warm water or milk. Ammonia inhalation should be administered by dropping a sufficient amount on a handkerchief or in the palm of the hand. The bottle should never be held to the nose. When stimulants are given by inhalation, great caution should be used, as they are likely to irritate the inflamed membranes.
Transportation of the Wounded
Where the patient is unable to walk alone, he may be carried by the bystanders making either two- or four-handed seats.
The four-handed seat is made by two persons clasping each other's wrists. Each person's left hand grasps his own right wrist, and his right hand grasps the other's left wrist.
After the hands are clasped together, the bearers stoop down behind the patient, who sits on their hands and at the same time places an arm around the neck of each.
To place the patient on a stretcher, put the stretcher at his head in line with the body. Let the two bearers, on opposite sides of the patient, grasp hands beneath his back and hips, raise him, lift him backward over the stretcher and lower him upon it.
If no stretcher or ambulance is at hand, one may be improvised by turning the sleeves of a coat inside out, passing poles through them and buttoning the coat; a long stretcher may be constructed with two coats.
A broad board or shutter covered with straw or clothing will provide a usable stretcher.
Always test a stretcher before placing a patient upon it.
Do not carry a stretcher on the shoulders, except when going up hill and upstairs.
Avoid lifting over walls, hedges, and ditches; keep level.
Bearers of stretchers must not keep step, right with right and left with left, as in marching. Opposite feet must be put forward at the same time, to prevent the swaying of the stretcher and the rolling of the patient.
Always carry the patient feet foremost, except when going up hill. In case of fractured thigh or fractured leg, if the patient has to be carried down hill, carry him head first.
If a chair is used for carrying, carry the patient back foremost. X—29