INTELLECTUAL EDUCATION 227
the idea of the object: that is, to the pronunciation of the name. She may ask him, " What is this ? " and the child should respond, " Smooth." The teacher may then interrupt, teaching him how to pronounce the word correctly and distinctly, first, drawing a deep breath and, then, saying in a rather loud voice, " Smooth." When he does this the teacher may note his particular speech defect, or the special form of baby talk to which he may be addicted.
In regard to the generalisation of the ideas received, and by that I mean the application of these ideas to his environment, I do not advise any lessons of this sort for a certain length of time, even for a number of months. There will be children who, after having touched a few times the stuffs, or merely the smooth and rough cards, will quite spontaneously touch the various surfaces about them, repeating " Smooth! Rough! It is velvet! etc." In dealing with normal children, we must await this spontaneous investigation of the surroundings, or, as I like to call it, this voluntary explosion of the exploring spirit. In such cases, the children experience a joy at each fresh discovery. They are conscious of a sense of dignity and satisfaction which encourages them to seek for new sensations from their environment and to make themselves spontaneous observers.
The teacher should watch with the most solicitous care to see when and how the child arrives at this generalisation of ideas. For example, one of our little four-yeai-olds while running about in the court one day suddenly stood still and cried out, " Oh! the sky is blue! " and stood for some time looking up into the blue expanse of the sky.
One day, when I entered one of the " Children's Houses," five or six little ones gathered quietly about me