Summer Schools and Academies 149
ushers, besides teaching the arts and sciences, should instil into the minds of the pupils moral and Christian principles, and form in them habits of virtue and the love of piety." The study of natural history, natural philosophy, and logic was encouraged, and " no person was suffered to attend to painting, embroidery, or any other of the ornamental branches to the neglect of the essential and fundamental facts of education."
For the regulation of the pupils' conduct there was a code of by-laws of thirty-six articles. Among other things, these provided that pupils of different sexes should not meet on the grounds or within the walls of the academy except at meals and prayers, nor walk or ride or visit together, under a penalty of one dollar. They were fined a dollar if they were absent from meeting Sunday, Fast Day, or Thanksgiving Day, and the same if they walked in the streets and fields or visited Saturday night or Sunday. They must forfeit a dollar if detected playing cards, backgammon, or checkers in the building. Ball and similar games near the academy were prohibited under a penalty of six cents, and a like sum was exacted from students found out of their rooms during study hours. The morning prayers were at five o'clock, or as soon as it was light enough to read ; fine for absence, four cents — for being tardy, two cents. The appointed time for beginning to study was an hour later. Fines were imposed for damage to library books, or books belonging to fellow-students, at the rate of six cents for a blot, and six cents for each drop of tallow; while for every leaf