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Arithmetic 
315 

Miss Hannah Adams was a native of Massachusetts. She had a feeble constitution, and never went to school much ; she studied and read by herself, and acquired much knowledge. 

5. One stage has four horses. How many horses have two stages? 







6. Then 2 times 4, or twice 4 are how many ?
7. Here are three boats, and each boat contains three men. How many men in all 1 







8. 3 times 3 are how many % 



Part of a Page. From Barnard's A Treatise on Arithmetic, 1830.
The earliest arithmetic I have seen that used pictures as an aid to beginners was Barnard's, published at Hartford in 1830. The book claimed to be " rendered entertaining to the pupil by a great variety of amusing problems." Some of these took the form of a continued story, as : —
1. John made 3 marks on one leaf of his book, and six on another. How many marks did he make ?
2. His teacher punished him, for soiling the book, by giving him 4 blows on one hand, and 5 on the other. How many blows did he strike him ?
3. 7 boys laughed at him on one side of the house, when he was punished, and 2 on the other. How many boys laughed ? 
